GNUnion & USI OrgNet
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- Transnational networks of radical labour research and (h)activism: A global working class in the making
- Interview with Kees van der Pijl: Global Rivalries Today
- Heather Marsh: government as mass collaboration
- Global Networked Labour Union invites organizers and networkers to mesh-up for the worldwide transition
- Records of the secret meeting between WikiLeaks founder Assange and Google’s CEO Schmit teamed up with US’ deep state
- Review of Lines of Work: Stories of Jobs and Resistance
- IISH Collections Made Available Online
- Worldwide #WaveOfAction General Assembly: Let us ride a Tsunami
- Global, networked, and united wikistrikes: GNUnion call for a ride with the Worldwide #Waveofaction
- Meta-data frames the context where firece global intra- and inter-Class Wars takes place
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Transnational networks of radical labour research and (h)activism: A global working class in the making
Global Networked Labour Union invites organizers and networkers to mesh-up for the worldwide transition
GNUnion invites everybody to network and organize at the same time, in order to stitch a mass mesh network between their like-minded peers, linking them and their network bases to each other strategically. We call all to strive to build dynamic, free, libre, and open source spaces, collective agendas and strategies to act upon in a harmonized way.
GNUnion encourages all its peers to collectivize their individual social and communicational power to swarm around dynamical, creative and positive actions. Such collective actions we know well by now that are capable of creating real impact at unpredicted magnitude on the chosen targets, regardless how large and powerful they are.
Combining peer to peer social relations and technologies and embedding them into all its internal and external processes and relationships, GNUnion ultimately aims at hyper-empowerment of all the nodes involved in one big mesh network.
Below are some of the spaces we collaborate on N-1, and the Organizing Network -online social network spaces developed as free nodes using Lorea.
Social Network-, Wiki-, Meta- Strikes
Our first direct and mesh networked action will be a transnational meta-strike to target PRISM contractors. Priority objectives of the strike will be forcing the state elite and capital to hand-off private and public data, and stop abusing people and democratic rights for their commercial and tyrannical objectives. The action will reclaim what is ‘social’ and belong to people in societal communication and bring about mass awareness about using FLOSS!
We will bring high-tech and industrial workers, hackers, system admins, digital artists and activists and their powers coming from production, consumption, communication and knowledge -so a being social individuals and society.
Working Groups on the ON and N-1: https://on.usilive.org/groups/profile/323/mayfirst-meta-strike
This wiki is a meta-strike developing space created by GNUnion. Inviting interested digital and analog workers, labour and union activists to use it for inventing, initiating and networganising collective hactions to target Meta-Data abuses of the Capital. Besides PRISM contractors, there is a need to forge class struggle against digital capitalists of Amazon.com, Huffington Post, and others who undermines human dignity and rights, gained after hundereds of years fighting back!
*Operation PRISM Knock-out!
Objective: To stop PRISM contractors abusing people and data, and promote an escape route to FLOSS alternatives
Targets: Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Apple, Twitter, Skype, Yahoo
Twitter: GNUnion – One Big Mesh Network
*Operation Mechanical Jurk
Objective: developing direct hacktion operation targeting Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk mass-exploitative model
Unite the Union’s USI mediates the established union world entering into the networked organising (networganizing) era
The below are Google Hangout videos taken from the USI’s website:
i. Hack the Union from US interviews with Andrew of Union Solidarity International: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=4U4FNAkZtSc
ii. A small step for unions, but a giant step for global labour
This following link is to a nice article by Walton Patland introducing the ON platform:
Autonomous, independant, distributed, collaborative, focused, disciplined, connected, meshed and outraged!
FOR ANOTHER WORLD, NOW!
Networked Labour was an outcome of an international seminar held in Amsterdam between 7-9 May 2013. The seminar was initially supported by Networked Politics, transform! europe, Transnational Institute and IGOPNET (Institut de Govern the Polítiques Públiques).
At the end of the seminar several ideas have emerged one of which was to improve this web space and try to transform it into a transnational and distributed network space, through which all of us could build new ties and expand our nets of collaboration.
WHY, HOW AND WHERE YOU CAN JOIN
Open Source and Libre Worker-to-Worker Activist-to-Activist Self Traning Material on New Social Media
Worker to worker transnational exchange at the shop-floor level : Social media and online networking guide for shop stewards and union activists
This new Anonymous call to action was originally posted to our social network in binary code and is quickly spreading around the internet. We are featuring it here to show our support for the proposed campaign.
The modern paradigm may still seem insurmountable “because it possesses an outward front, the work of a long past, but is in reality an edifice crumbling to ruin and destined to fall in at the first storm.”
– Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind
– Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind
The decentralized movement toward freedom is raging across the world. It cannot be stopped. The tipping point is near. Despite the lack of coverage in the mainstream media, actions are springing up on an increasing basis. A wave of transformation is rising. The zeitgeist is shifting in our direction.
At this point, given all the nonviolent direct actions that are currently being planned, it makes strategic sense for us to organize them, in a decentralized way, in a way that the mainstream media cannot ignore. A slightly more coordinated approach is all it will take.
The Awakening Wave
The Dramatic Rise of Peer-to-Peer Communication within the emancipatory movements Reflections of an International Labour, Social Justice and Cyber Activist
In the article I give a personal review on some of the important spaces of convergence and mobilisations some of which took place in 2011 and 2012 and others are currently being planned: like, 15O, Joint Social Conferences, Hub Meetings of Indignados, Global May, Agora 99 and Florence 10+10 among others. I also deliver my observations on the dramatic rise of peer to peer (P2P) communication as well as increasing involvement of new generation activists in these spaces and mobilisations. Such developments might allow radical reformist and revolutionary forces to invent an upgraded methodology for working together which might in return make it possible to form transnationally connected and strong alliances between horizontal and less vertical forms of agency, so called movement of movements.
By Orsan Senalp , Mehmet Senalp - 15 Apr 14
Kees van der Pijl
Introductory question: Since more or less the beginning of the neoliberal offensive in the 1970s, you have been leading important research and theoretical work on the Atlantic ruling class, international capitalist class formation, transnational capitalist classes and the global rivalries amongst capitalist classes which finally triggered a massive global economic crisis in 2007. Throughout the past decade you have been extremely productive, publishing a notable amount on these topics. In addition to numerous articles, your bookGlobal Rivalries was published in 2006, followed by Nomads, Empires, States andThe Foreign Encounter in Myth and Religion in 2007 and 2010 respectively. The first and second volumes of your Modes of Foreign Relations and Political Economytrilogy were also published. The last volume The Discipline of Western Supremacywas just recently released. Besides this classical body of work, which in our opinion is on a par with Polanyi’s Great Transformation, you have written and updated a free web-textbook on Global Political Economy. Last year also saw the release of a reprint of The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class. Currently you are editing a very timely and exciting volume entitled International Political Economy of Production.
Kees, after seven years how do you view the current status of global rivalries amongst the ruling classes? Could you give us your account especially in relation to the grassroots uprisings that have been happening in different kinds of state-society complexes around the world following the 2007/2008 financial crisis? Do you think these were the uprisings anticipated in infamous Pentagon reports and National Security documents released on the eve of 9/11? What do you think the Atlantic ruling classes have done to prepare their response to these early warnings?
Kees van der Pijl: Historical events, as such, are never entirely anticipated, and even when planned, (such as the invasion of Iraq), they have consequences that nobody had foreseen. Of course, once events unfold, intellectual preparation will kick in, and then it depends on the quality of theoretical insight and the accuracy of contingency planning, as well as the readiness of the apparatus to put it into practice, as to– whether the planners can gain control over the course of events again. Continue reading
Originally posted on Loomio:
Heather Marsh is a human rights and internet activist, programmer, political theorist, and former Editor in Chief at Wikileaks Central, and the author of Binding Chaos , a compelling blueprint for 21st century governance. An excerpt:
We can do better than [representative democracy]. We can govern by user groups, respect individual rights and global commons, and collaborate using stigmergy. We can belong to overlapping societies voluntarily by acceptance of social contracts. Where necessary, elite expertise can be contained and used through transparent epistemic communities with knowledge bridges while control remains with the user group.
Loomio co-founder Richard D. Bartlett had the very good fortune to interview Heather recently, as part of our ongoing interview series: Inspiring Disruptors.
I’m really excited about your concept of “stigmergic collaboration, epistemic communities and knowledge bridges”. How would you describe these ideas to my 8 year old niece? (She is pretty smart).
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Records of the secret meeting between WikiLeaks founder Assange and Google’s CEO Schmit teamed up with US’ deep state
Originally posted on Talking Union:
by Joe Burns
Many times in discussing labor issues the tendency is to focus on policy issues or major events far removed from the workplace. In Lines of Work: Stories of Jobs and Resistance, a couple dozen workers from the US, Canada and Great Britain, loosely affiliated with the Industrial Workers of the World, seek to turn the conversation in a different direction—to tell stories of work and the workplace. Sometimes they talk about workplace struggles and resistance; sometimes they talk about their jobs and work. There is something refreshing about this approach.
The book contains over thirty chapters with stories ranging from a warehouse worker’s fight against speedup to a clerical worker’s struggle to make her liberal boss at small non-profit understand her class privilege to a liquor store worker’s organizing against sexual harassment. Some of the stories are about organizing campaigns, such as Starbuck workers, others are…
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Originally posted on All that is Solid for Glenn Rikowski:
IISH COLLECTIONS MADE AVAILABLE ONLINE
International Institute of Social History
Leading IISH collections made available online
Announcement, IISH, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Starting today, dozens of the IISH’s leading archives are fully available to view free of charge via the institute’s catalogue. Celebrated collections can now be studied from anywhere in the world, including the papers of Pieter Jelles Troelstra and Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Lev Trotsky, the German Social Democrat politicians Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky, and the French anarchist Louise Michel, as well as the archives of political parties as the Dutch Social-Democratic Party.
The digitalized documents can be browsed and each piece can be viewed in full screen mode. By adjusting the size and contrast, or rotating, it will be possible to consult the material easily. The documents can also be downloaded as a pdf file or printed out.
The Institute has digitalized its archives in recent years using…
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This is the first global Mumble call to evaluate the launching of the worldwide #waveofaction, by participants across the world, on the 6th of April 2014, Sunday 13:00 London time. We love to meet and exchange our visions and ideas of global change, and how to ride the worldwide wave further in 2014 so that it becomes a plentary tsunami of awereness and change through collective, peaceful, radical, and networked action.
Date: 06 April 2014
Time: 13:00-15:30 PM (UK time)
Mumble Server: Occupy Talk
Server: occupytalk.org (has to be written exactly as it is)
Channel: Assemblies and Round Tables > OPEN SPACE
Nickname: Your name/nick
To those who are new to Mumble, it is recommended to join the meeting room 15-30min before the set time, in order to work out any technical problem that might occur at the spot!
How to join in a Mumble call?
If need help about using Mumble please ask beforehand by sending direct message on the GNUnion fb page.
Originally posted on GNUnion:
Global Networked Labour Union (@GNUnion)
May-First Meta-Stike Organising Group on Lorea Organizing Network
Worldwide Wace of Action (#Waveofaction)
Dreaming of and becoming a worldwide wiki-strike
4.4.2014 – Worldwide launch by greeting Martin Luther King
May First – All the Fists unite aginast PRISM and corporate capture of the Net (of Everything)
Nov 5th – Billions Rising for Life, Peace and Justice on Earth
We shall be decommodifing the Commons and
building FLOSS backed P2P and grassroots solidarity economy networks
Since 2010-2011 we have been rising from bottom to up in Athens, Paris, Wisconsin, Tunis, Cairo, Madrid, New York, Tel-Aviv, Rio, Istanbul and everywhere… we have been making millions of new connections around the planet, learning through our networks and linking them on the ground!
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NSA’s PRISM Partners Form Industrial Internet Consortium: The IoE, IoT, Industrial Internet… Meta-Data is the context where a firece global intra- and inter-class wars within and between the 1% and the 99% takes place
“AT&T, Cisco, GE, IBM and Intel today announced the formation of the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC), an open membership group focused on breaking down technology silos to support better access to big data with improved integration of the physical and digital worlds. The IIC will be managed by the non-profit trade association Object Management Group (OMG).
The IIC will identify requirements for open interoperability standards and define common architectures to connect smart devices, machines, people, processes and data. The new group will take the lead in establishing interoperability across various industrial environments for a more connected world. The IIC charter calls for utilizing existing and creating new industry use cases and test beds for real-world applications, delivering best practices, reference architectures, case studies, and standards requirements, influencing the global standards development process, facilitating open forums to share and exchange real-world ideas, and building confidence around new and innovative approaches to security.”
“Here are two obvious questions for our surveillance future: Who controls the data generated by our devices? Without doing anything except buying and installing them, do we somehow consent to having every piece of data they generate shared with Big Business and sometimes Big Brother?” 25.03.2014 Read the post here
“[W]e estimate that only one percent of things that could have an IP address do have an IP address today, so we like to say that ninety-nine percent of the world is still asleep,” Padmasree Warrior, Cisco’s Chief Technology and Strategy Officer, told the Silicon Valley Summit in December. “It’s up to our imaginations to figure out what will happen when the ninety-nine percent wakes up.” *26.03.2014 Read the post
“Cisco defines the Internet of Everything (IoE) as bringing together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before-turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented economic opportunity for businesses, individuals, and countries.” – Read at Cisco’s website
AT&T, Cisco, GE, IBM and Intel form Industrial Internet Consortium for IoT standards * Read more: AT&T, Cisco, GE, IBM and Intel form Industrial Internet Consortium for IoT standards – FierceWireless http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/att-cisco-ge-ibm-and-intel-form-industrial-internet-consortium-iot-standard/2014-03-28#ixzz2xS9KabG0
Subscribe at FierceWireless
Further questions rise:
Was the PRISM-NSA, and IoE, the one that was syping on governments (as recently leaked records from Ukrainian and Turkish Governments)?
How the people and progressive and revolutionary networks will react to IoE and MassSurvelliance Civilisation?
Is the WorldCyberWar I has started?
Will this lead to the World War III?
GNUnion calls hackers, workers, makers, and activists to mesh network all emancipatory power from individual to collective level, by joining hands around a Meta-Strike to counter rising client-server, meta-data survelliance facism of PRISM-NSA-Silicon Valley partnerships.
Join in the global Organizing Network on Lorea
The garment and apparel manufacturing sector is mainly concentrated in a few countries in the south and south east of Asia. It is an industry with a vicious ‘Race to the Bottom’ drive that kills thousands of workers. Workers are fighting back in many countries, but their struggles are often isolated. How do we better link together, how to we organise better together, how do we campaign together for common demands? On Wednesday the 2nd of April, AAWL is organising an international co-ordinated meeting with a number of garment workers representatives to discuss these issues.
6pm Wednesday 2 April 2014 at AMWU
Level 1, 251 Queensberry St
Click here for leaflet
China is the workshop of the world. And – if you’re a worker in the West – its the threat your boss uses to keep your wages down. We are constantly told how our wage demands are “uncompetitive”, and how companies will ship their production to China to save costs.
But what about the workers of China? We hear very little about them – about their terms and conditions, about their organisations, about their lives and their struggles. And yet their struggles are vitally important to the labour movement everywhere: if Chinese workers win better conditions for themselves, it makes the bosses’ threat less convincing. It gives us an opportunity to support each other in a climb to the top, instead of competing on a race to the bottom: to build a world of fairness and dignity at work, with wages that allow workers to live secure and fulfilling lives.
Global and distributed network of (manual-mental) working class, (h)activist and oppressed people’s networks is needed
Tayyip Erdogan have chosen place his bet on dictatorial move, to raply increasing attacks coming from international Gulen cult / movement, Islamic version of the Moon Cult. AKP (un)Government finally shut herself in the head by shutting down Twitter this morning after midnight, and adding Turkey in the short list of dictatorial regimes.
Being linked to anti-communist underground networks organised by Gladio, the Gulen Movement has instrumental for the Western imperialism in the 70s and the 80s. The Cult got upgraded in the 90s in order to be used in the instalment of controlled market friendly soft-islamic regimes, in countries surrounding Russia, India and China, Malaysia being most notable example. The Cult was getting organised steadily in the army, and state appratus for decades. After the big banking crisis of 2001, they teamed up with the reformist wing of the anti Western-Islamist Milli Gorus, which had ties with Muslim Brothers, and played a major role both in the collapse of the current goverment and in the formation of the AKP as a new party. This coalition recieved support by both left and right liberals during the first half of the 2000s for their steps towards braking down the ancient regime; the old-boys elite network that controlled the state and the market till then. This earlier ruling coalition, or historical block, had been composed of military-bureaucratic elite and capitalist hierarchy -under the leadership of the Koc family. Although Erdogan-Gulen-Liberals coalition managed to alter the old boys, timing of the 2007- 2008 global crisis was bad. The crisis have demarcated similar kinds of coalitions worldwide and have put the global geopolitics under increasing stress. In a many national contexts, that are located in the new imperial frontiers of North Africa, inner-Asia, Asia-Pacific and Latin America, those involved in similar coalitions have turned towards each other and fought, holding on the parts of the state apparatus they captured. The same has happened in Turkey bringing the state vs. state, the deep state vs parallel stat, starting a process that delegitimises all sides involved as well as the stateness itself.
The situation increasingly gives a cold war like view, with two crucial differences though. First one is the absence of an ideological contender before capitalism and the capitalist state. Secondly, the presence of social neworking sites like Facebook, Google + and Twitter. Although the ownership of these firms themselves are taking part in this cold war like rivalry, being populated by hundered of millions of people they provide a large public space through which the dark face and dirty clothes of all fractions of the ruling classes, so called the 1%, are massively spread around. They also provided the social opposition of any type, and globally, with useful tools to train themselves in online transnational organising, in developing creative and distributed revolts. Allowing real time feed backs that contribute in the learning process, enabling ruled masses to build a global manoeuvre war against the delegitimising rulers of the global capitalism.
This last counter offence of Erdogan is not only to challenge his local oplitical rivals, it is clearly a parto of a transnational intra-class struggule, part of a global chess game being played harsher at the imperial frontiers on the board. It might either push towards a corrective inter-elite war, addding on top of the tension increasing between Russia,China and the West, or spark public launch of a worldwide class war between the rulers and the ruled. Comparing the compact and fragile state of the %1, capitalists and rulers that are ready to eat each other, and diffused and distributed state of %99, the ruled and oppressed multitude of working classes seeking channels and protocols to build a genuine global solidarity, it gets difficult to hope for the latter.
However there is no point in hoping alone. What we urgently need to is find a way to stand together, collaborate, and act in solidarity!
Many Struggles one Hashtag: #WaveofAction
Another World Now!
#OPTurkey: How to ByPass the Twitter Ban with mesh networking your social media accounts #ManyStrugglesOneHashtag #WaveofAction
#OPTurkey: How to ByPass the Twitter Ban with connecting all social media accounts
GNUnion invites activists and all social media users from across the world to create a mesh networked collaboration to penetrate fascistic offenses at people’s most basic rights as the Twitter ban in Turkey. It is expected that the more war-prone the elite evolves more threats like this one will appear so similar bans might come somewhere else, on other social media as well. Simplest solution worth to try is linking one’s all social network accounts to each other. Here you can see how to link Twitter to Facebook, and here Facebook to Twitter. Almost all popular tools are able to connect to others. Using one of these social media management tools, or any other ones, it becomes easy to manage and post tweets and to Facebook or any other social network, and vice versa. The posts and tweets are duplicated on several social media and can be shared by others. Then those others need to create a mesh network of accounts by linking to comrades from different countries, this creates massive in- and out- fluxes that amplifies the voice of, in t his case Turkey to the World, and the opposite. If it works the result would not be a transnational strategy that can bypass fascistic bans like of Erdogan’s, but also could create stronger and distributed global network base. It is sure that the fiercer gets the struggle within the 1%, the more ruthless will they attack at human dignity. They will soon try to demarcate and de-nationalize it. Yet it won’t happen triggering and feeding-in the global wave of rEvolutionary actions. An infrastructure of distributed global network of people, could be helpful to protect the Internet from being divided, while moving step further in organizing people’s worldwide response.
Many Struggles one Hashtag – #WaveofAction
This interview with Dmytri Kleiner, conducted by KMO for his C-Realm Podcast, was transcripted by Guerrilla Translation at KMO’s request. The audio was, unfortunately, unusable for the podcast because of background noise, but the resulting interview was too good to not to share. The following is re-posted from the C-Realm blog.
KMO: You are listening to the C-Realm Podcast, I am your host, KMO, and I’m speaking with Dmytri Kleiner, venture capitalist and miscommunications technologist. Dmytri, welcome to the C-Realm Podcast.
Dmytri: Thank you, but that’s “venture communist.”
Did I say “capitalist?”
It’s an easy mistake.
You know, I’ve read the phrase “venture communist” several times in the past few hours in preparing for this interview, and yeah… it just rolled out “venture capitalist,” didn’t it?
So, Dmytri Kleiner, “Venture Communist” – what does that mean?
Well, it’s sort of the name of a research project I started awhile ago. My background comes from the social justice movement of the 90s. I was part of some of the kinds of hacker groups that eventually became things like Indymedia, and stuff that we called technology affinity groups. At that time there was something going on called the dotcom boom, that you probably remember. A lot of us who were part of these hacker affinity groups supporting activist projects were working for these dotcoms.
Networganize and GNUnite to Knock-out PRISM!
Assembly call and information on ON workgroup:
Working Pad: http://titanpad.com/metastrike
The target of the meeting is not to figure out or discuss overall organisational tactics or strategies but to create commons tools for all autonomous groups’ use, so all networks which would invovle on the road can benefit and adopt to their self-determined strategy and tactics. Please invite interested with relevant skills for the preperatorty meeting which is taking place on the 16th of march, on Union Solidarity International’s BigBlueButton (BBB) server, which is hosted by May First-People Link. To join the meeting you do not need to download any software.
How to Join:
1. Browse to https://usilive.org/
2. Login, register or connect via one of your social media accounts.
3. Scroll-down and see on the right hand column ‘BIGBLUEBUTTON’ window.
4. Chose ‘Austerity in Greece’ in the ‘Meeting:’ bar and click join
0. Intro round and agenda formation
The below are some initial tasks needs to be discusses and taken further.
1. Collection and creation of pool for strike ideas
2. Collection and creation of material, audio, video, posters, caps..
3. Preparing basic multi-lingual networked-pads for twitter storm and facebook mob. teams
4. List of large accounts, bloggers, media links
5. Intelligence working group on PRISM contractors
Join in our other transnational networganizing efforts in progress…
GNUnion – Global Networked Labour Union
- Translated/Re-edited * by Stacco Troncoso, edited by Jane Loes Lipton - Guerrilla Translation!
- Images by Las Indias and Shareable
- Read the Spanish version here
In this interview, Shareable publisher Neal Gorenflo, John Robb of Global Guerrillas, and P2P foundation’s Michel Bauwens talk to David de Ugarte, one of the originators of the Spanish cyberpunk scene, about his more recent work developing a multinational worker cooperative, Las Indias, that is a culmination of his community’s thinking and work for the last decade. Las Indias is the manifestation of a unique socio-economic philosophy that synthesizes many strains of thinking and culture including cyberpunk, anarchism, network thinking, and cooperatives – all with a Spanish twist. It’s important because it points to a possible future for those who think outside of national boundaries, and who desire or need to take control of their own economic destiny. It’s a possible future that takes the centuries-old logic of cooperatives and remixes it for the urban-centered, global network society we live in today.
With the repercussions of the economic crisis still reverberating through the global system, what are the possibilities of labour movements to form relationships of transnational solidarity in resistance to the exploitative and destructive dynamics of global capitalism? This question was at the heart of the two-day international workshop Labour and transnational action in times of crisis: from case studies to theory, organised by the Transnational Labour project in Oslo on 27 and 28 February 2014. In this post, I will discuss some of the key themes, which emerged from the various presentations and debates.
Importantly, as Tamara Kay made clear, just because there is economic restructuring at the international level as in the case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), this does not automatically lead to transnational solidarity between different national labour movements. Hence, some discussions at the workshop revolved around the obstacles to transnational solidarity.
Obstacles to transnational solidarity
Economic restructuring, rather than facilitating transnational solidarity, may actually be an obstacle in itself. Capitalism is subject to periodic crises. In order to overcome crises, there is a constant tendency towards outward expansion to integrate or re-integrate in novel forms peripheral spaces into capitalist development. This development, however, occurs along uneven and combined lines. It is combined in that peripheral development is driven by dynamics in the core and it is uneven in that the difference in development between core and periphery constantly increases. As a result, different national labour movements find themselves in rather different locations in the global economy leading to potentially different interests.